Consider the following pairs:

  1. Permanent Settlement→ Bengal, Bihar & Orissa
  2. Ryotwari Settlement→ Presidencies of Bombay and Madras
  3. Mahalwari Settlement→ North West Provinces
  4. Zabit Settlement→ Gujarat

 Which of the above is/are correct?

Answer: [D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Permanent settlement was introduced in 1793 by Lord Cornwallis and covered around one fifth of British territory in India, including Bengal, Bihar & Orissa. Ryotwari system of land tenure was introduced early in the nineteenth century in Presidencies of Bombay and Madras. Under this system the settlement was made by the government directly with the cultivator (ryot) who thus was the proprietor, but only for a period of time. Mahalwari system was introduced in the North West Provinces, the Punjab, Delhi, Parts of Central India and Uttar Pradesh In this system, the land was not owned by an individual be it zamindari or any cultivator but by a group of estates or villages called Mahal. The Mahal was collectively known as the landlord and revenue was collected from the head of the Mahal, also known as Talukdar. Zabit system was introduced in Gujarat.

This question is a part of GKToday's Integrated IAS General Studies Module